Many years ago, Freud defined so called “ http://xxxlobby.com/community/osnovnie-faktori-peredachi-salmonelleza.html основные факторы передачи сальмонеллеза defence mechanisms” to respond to stress exposure. Nowadays, the list of these mechanism has been expanded. The defence mechanisms are http://batik-r-us.com/tech/stenka-marta-11-instruktsiya.html стенка марта 11 инструкция unconscious coping techniques, meaning that most of us do not realize that we are using them in a particular moment. These techniques might result in healthy or unhealthy consequences depending upon which mechanism we are using.
The more primitive a defence mechanism, the less effective it works over the long-term. However, more primitive defense mechanisms are usually very effective short-term, and that is why are favored by many people.
Defence mechanisms exist in a hierarchical ordering http://carpintariachas.com/delo/harakteristika-deyatelnosti-istoricheskoy-lichnosti.html характеристика деятельности исторической личности from least to more mature or adaptive:
1. апл владимир мономах последние новости Denial = you ignore unpleasant external realities and refuse their acknowledgement.
2. духовно нравственное воспитание определение понятия Fantasy = you are gratifying your frustrated desires by imaginary achievements.
3. Projection = you are attributing your own unacceptable desire or impulse onto someone else.
4. Displacement = you are releasing your anxiety against a substitute object when doing so against the source the anxiety.
5. Identification = you are taking on the characteristics of someone viewed as successful.
6. Regression = you are temporary returning to an earlier stage of development rather than handling unacceptable impulses in a more adult way.
7. Repression = you are attempting to repel desires towards pleasurable instincts, caused by a threat of suffering if the desire is satisfied.
8. Reaction Formation = you are adopting or expressing the strong opposite of you true feelings and motives.
9. Rationalization = you ae justifying an unacceptable thought or feeling by selecting a logical reason to think or feel that way.
10. Anticipation = you are forecasting future danger and coping with it gradually using small steps.
11. Humour = you are accepting you shortcoming and talking about it in a socially acceptable way.
12. Mindfulness = you are adopting a particular orientation towards your own experiences in the present moment through expressing curiosity, openness, and acceptance.
13. Patience = you are enduring difficult circumstances for some time before responding negatively.
14. Sublimation = you are transforming a socially unacceptable anxiety into a source of energy that produces no adverse consequences making them socially acceptable.
15. Suppression = you delay your conscious decision paying attention to your emotion in order to cope with the present reality.
16. Tolerance = you are deliberately allowing a thing of which you disapprove.
17. Assertiveness = you are putting an emphasis on our need and thoughts in a manner that is respectful, direct, and firm.
A partial extract from my upcoming book Stress and Health: What you need to know for your well-being